How to make an automatic solar tracker without arduino

Making a Solar Tracker Using Various Components

In today's world, where sustainable energy solutions are gaining more traction, harnessing the power of the sun through solar panels has become a significant focus. To maximize the efficiency of solar panels, solar trackers have emerged as a game-changer. These devices ensure that solar panels follow the sun's movement across the sky, optimizing energy capture throughout the day. In this article, we'll guide you through the process of creating a solar tracker using specific components. Our comprehensive guide will help you create your own solar tracker system, utilizing LDR sensors, 220R resistors, TDA2822 IC, 1N4007 diode, solar panel, 5V DC motor, 3.7V battery, and a push on-off switch.

Understanding Solar Trackers:

Understanding Solar Trackers

Understanding Solar Trackers

Solar trackers are mechanisms that allow solar panels to tilt and rotate in the direction of the sun's movement. This dynamic adjustment ensures that the panels are receiving maximum sunlight exposure throughout the day. This translates into increased energy production, making solar trackers an attractive option for both residential and commercial solar installations.

Components You'll Need:

1. LDR Sensors

Light Dependent Resistors (LDRs) are key components in a solar tracker system. These sensors detect the intensity of light and help the system determine the sun's position. Placing two LDR sensors strategically on opposite sides of the solar panel allows the tracker to sense the sun's movement accurately.

2. 220R Resistors

The 220R resistors play a crucial role in creating voltage dividers with the LDR sensors. These dividers help convert changes in light intensity into measurable voltage variations, which are then processed by the control circuitry.

3. TDA2822 IC

The TDA2822 IC acts as the control center of the solar tracker. It processes the voltage signals from the LDR sensors, calculates the optimal position for the solar panel, and controls the motor's movement to adjust the panel's angle.

4. 1N4007 Diode

The 1N4007 diode ensures that the current flows in only one direction, preventing any potential damage to the components. It safeguards the circuit by preventing reverse current flow, which can occur when the solar panel generates higher voltage than the rest of the circuit.

5. Solar Panel 

Of course, the heart of the system is the solar panel itself. Choose a high-quality solar panel with sufficient power output to make the most of your solar tracker setup.

6. 5V DC Motor

The 5V DC motor is responsible for adjusting the angle of the solar panel. The control circuitry, guided by the inputs from the LDR sensors, precisely rotates the motor to ensure the solar panel is always facing the sun.

7. 3.7V Battery

To maintain operation during cloudy days or nighttime, a 3.7V battery provides the necessary backup power. This ensures uninterrupted solar tracking and energy generation.

8. Push On-Off Switch

The push on-off switch serves as a manual control to start or stop the solar tracker system. This is particularly useful during maintenance or when you want to temporarily disable the tracking function.

Building Your Solar Tracker:

Step 1: Assembling the LDR Sensors and 220R Resistors

Connect the LDR sensors in a voltage divider configuration using the 220R resistors. This arrangement will provide varying voltages based on the light intensity each sensor receives. Mount these sensors on either side of the solar panel.

Step 2: Integrating the TDA2822 IC

The TDA2822 IC should be connected to the outputs of the LDR sensors. Use its inputs to process the voltage signals and determine the optimal position for the solar panel. The IC's outputs will control the 5V DC motor's rotation, ensuring the panel follows the sun's path.

Step 3: Incorporating the 1N4007 Diode

To prevent any damage from potential reverse current, include the 1N4007 diode in the circuit. Its role is pivotal in protecting the components from potential voltage irregularities.

Step 4: Mounting the Solar Panel and Motor

Securely attach the solar panel to the 5V DC motor. This connection allows the motor to tilt the panel as needed. Proper alignment is essential for accurate solar tracking.

Step 5: Adding the Battery and On-Off Switch

Integrate the 3.7V battery to the circuit, ensuring the system has a power backup. Connect the push on-off switch to the control circuit, allowing you to manually control the solar tracker's operation.

Wiring the Automatic Solar Tracker:

To simplify the wiring process, I've provided a schematic diagram below.

Automatic solar tracker Circuit Diagram

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Q&A Section

Q1: Why is a solar tracker beneficial for solar panels?

A1: Solar trackers enhance energy production by allowing solar panels to follow the sun's movement, maximizing sunlight exposure throughout the day. This results in higher energy efficiency compared to fixed solar panels.

Q2: How do LDR sensors contribute to solar tracking?

A2: LDR sensors detect changes in light intensity and help the solar tracker system determine the sun's position. By strategically placing these sensors on opposite sides of the panel, the system can accurately adjust the panel's angle.

Q3: What is the role of the TDA2822 IC in the solar tracker system?

A3: The TDA2822 IC acts as the brain of the solar tracker. It processes signals from the LDR sensors and calculates the optimal position for the solar panel. It then controls the 5V DC motor's rotation to ensure the panel faces the sun.

Q4: Why is the 1N4007 diode important in the circuit?

A4: The 1N4007 diode allows current to flow in only one direction, preventing potential damage from reverse current flow. This protection ensures the longevity of the components and circuitry.

Q5: Can you explain the significance of the 3.7V battery?

A5: The 3.7V battery provides backup power, allowing the solar tracker to operate during cloudy periods or at night. It ensures uninterrupted tracking and energy generation.

Q6: How does the push on-off switch contribute to the system?

A6: The push on-off switch offers manual control over the solar tracker. It allows users to start or stop the tracking function as needed, which is useful for maintenance or temporary disabling.


Creating a solar tracker using LDR sensors, 220R resistors, TDA2822 IC, 1N4007 diode, solar panel, 5V DC motor, 3.7V battery, and a push on-off switch opens up exciting possibilities for enhancing the efficiency of your solar energy setup. This DIY project not only helps you generate more renewable energy but also showcases your technical prowess. Embrace the power of technology and sustainability by building your own solar tracker system.

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